Apa itu Turnarounds


ada salah satu aktifitas turn around di salah satu mini plant kami.
turn around ini pengalaman pertama saya…
dulu-dulu pernah dengar istilah ini di salah satu meeting dengan KKKS lain dan BP Migas (sekarang SKK Migas)

nah apa sih turn around itu?
berikut saya copy paste dari 2 website ..
silahkan terjemahkan sendiri …
kalau ada yang mau menambahkan dipersilahkan …



Refinery Turnarounds

A turnaround is a planned, periodic shut down (total or partial) of a refinery process unit or plant to perform maintenance, overhaul and repair operations and to inspect, test and replace process materials and equipment.

Here are some key facts:

Turnarounds allow for necessary maintenance and upkeep of operating units and are needed to maintain safe and efficient operations.
Turnarounds are scheduled at least 1-2 years in advance and do not necessarily focus on the same operating units.
In assessing whether to delay a turnaround, a refiner has to include the opportunity cost of a possible unplanned shutdown resulting from the decision to delay the turnaround.
Depending on the process unit and the amount of maintenance needed, the length of the turnaround can vary from 1 week to 4 weeks or more.
A major turnaround usually will involve the crude unit or the catalytic cracking unit and will result in a more significant decrease in the utilization rate than a minor turnaround that may involve units such as the alkylation unit, isomerization unit or sulfur plant.
Not every unit is impacted during every turnaround. For example, the industry average is about 4 years between turnarounds catalytic cracking units.
A turnaround is not necessary to enable a refinery to shift from gasoline mode to distillate mode. However, if a turnaround is planned, it is possible to take steps, such as catalyst upgrades, that could improve the distillate yields.
In general, the less often units are started up and taken down, the better (safer) it is since refinery incidents are more likely to occur during these occasions.


Shutdowns and Turnarounds in the Oil and Gas Industry

Effective planning and execution of shutdowns and turnarounds is essential to maintain product levels and reduce loss of revenue for the oil and gas industry, particularly if improper maintenance leads to an unplanned shutdown.

The effects of unplanned shutdowns or changes to schedules can have a profound impact not only on the company operating the facility but also on the wider economy.

Figures from the UK Office for National Statistics show that the fall in industrial production that was experienced in the country in June 2010 was in part due to shutdowns within the oil and gas industry. Oil and gas production in the UK contributes £8 billion a year to the Exchequer and has been the largest sector of industrial development for four decades.

The 0.5 percent dip was seen as a surprise setback by analysts and was due in part to a 6 percent drop in oil and gas extraction. This was caused by planned shutdowns for maintenance taking place in June rather than August.

Planning an Efficient Turnaround

Major players within the oil and gas industry know the importance of significant levels of planning in executing maintenance work.

Shell has announced the successful completion of a number of turnarounds in the past few months. Planning for the successful turnaround at the Athabasca Oil Sands Project, completed in June, had been underway since 2007 and the maintenance work was completed within the two-month timeframe and within budget.

Some 4,500 contractors were involved in the second major turnaround at the Muskeg River Mine and Scotford Upgrader, which Shell is a 60 percent owner of. During the shutdown, more than 250 new valves were installed and work began on a pipeline which will facilitate a 100,000 barrel a day expansion project.

The company also recently completed the first successful turnaround of its Nanhai petrochemicals plant in China in August.

Working with its partner, China National Offshore Oil Company, the company was able to perform the turnaround ahead of time and budget. Debottlenecking of various processing units was timed to coincide with the shutdown to increase capacity at the plant.

Ben van Beurden, executive vice president of Shell Chemicals, said: “The decision to increase capacity at Nanhai supports the Shell strategy to grow selectively and to continue to remain a leader in the expanding Asian petrochemicals market.”

Reports from Bloomberg suggest that Saudi Aramco and Exxon Mobil Corp are already planning a maintenance shutdown, which may last 45 days, at the Yanbu refinery for February 2013.

Consequences of Unplanned Shutdowns

The economic impact from a number of unplanned shutdowns can be severe for oil and gas companies.

Indonesia saw a reduction in its crude oil sales during the first half of the year, caused in part by 122 unplanned shutdowns from the operator BPMigas, which created 6,860 bpd in lost production, the Jakarta Post reported.

BPMigas chairman R Priyono said that companies had not been paying proper attention to maintenance previously due to a lack of clarity on government policy, but this was set to change this year and decrease the number of unplanned shutdowns.

“Last year oil and gas contractors did not really pay attention on maintenance as they were still unclear about the cost recovery payment. But now the government has said the payment would not be capped, creating certainty for the contractors,” Priyono is quoted by the news provider as saying.

Unplanned shutdowns also potentially put pressure on resources when the plant became operational.

An unplanned shutdown at the North Refineries Company’s Baiji oil refinery in early August due to a mechanical fault means the company has now been required to significantly increase production.

Reuters reports that the refinery, which usually operates at 70 percent capacity, has been forced to boost production to 80 percent capacity to compensate for the loss in revenue.


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